|Unit -I: Physical World and Measurement:
Physics – scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.
Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement, significant figures. Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
|Unit -II: Kinematics:
Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, and relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion, Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. Unit vector: Resolution of a vector in a plane – rectangular components. Scalar and vector product of vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.
|Unit- III: Laws of Motion:
Intuitive concept of force. Inertia. Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse: Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction. Rolling friction, lubrication. Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road. vehicle on banked road).
|Unit -IV Work, Energy and Power:
Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power. Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-Conservative forces, motion in a vertical circle; elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
|Unit-V Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body:
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conversation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod. Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples. Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
Keplar’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.
|Unit-VII Properties of Bulk Matter:
Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poison’s-ratio; elastic energy Pressure due to a fluid column Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure. Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynolds’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases, anomalous expansion, specific heat Capacity: Cp, Cv-colorimetry; change of state-latent heat. Heat transfer-conduction, convection radiation and thermal Conductivity, Qualitative idea of Blackbody radiation, Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law, Wien’s displacement law, Green House effect.
Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeros law of thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.
|Unit-IX Behavior of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory:
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases. Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; rms, speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases: concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.
|Unit-X : Oscillations and Waves:
Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M.-kinetic and potential energies: simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period: free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance. Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement-relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.
Electric Charges; and their Conservation, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and cautious charge distribution. Electrical field, electric field due to a point charge, electric-field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (Field inside and outside). Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graff generator.
|Unit-XII: Current Electricity:
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current: Ohm’s law, electrical resistance. V-1 characteristics (linear and non linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, meter bridge. Potentiometer-principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells, measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
|Unit-XIII: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism:
Concept of magnetic field. Oersted’s experiment; Biot-savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors, definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometers- its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (Bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements, Para-, dia-and Ferro-magnetic substances with examples, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths.
|Unit-XIV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents:
Electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s laws, induced emf and current, Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents: Self and mutual inductance. Alternating current, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedances; LC oscillations, (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit resonance; power in AC circuit, wattles current. AC generator and transformer.
|Unit-XV: Electromagnetic Waves:
Need for displacement current, Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (Radio waves, Radio-microwaves, infra-red, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, combination of lens and mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light-blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. Wave’s optics: wave front and Huygens’ Principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens ‘Principle. Interference. Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarized light – Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and polaroids.
|Unit-XVII: Dual nature of Matter and Radiation:
Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations’; Einstein’s photoelectric equation, particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Division- Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).
|Unit-VIII: Atoms & Nuclei:
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity- alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass-defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission and fusion.
|Unit-XIX: Electronic Devices:
Energy bands in solids (qualitative idea only) conductor, insulators and Semiconductors; semiconductor Diode-I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier, I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode, Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action; characteristics of a transistor: transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
|Unit-XX: Communication Systems:
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium- Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, Sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave.
|Unit-I Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry:
General introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination. Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass: percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions,
stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
|Unit-II Structure of Atom:
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations. Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, De Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital’s, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p, and d orbital’s, rules for filling electrons in orbital’s – Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbital’s.
|Unit-III Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties:
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii, Inert gas radii. lonization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electro negativity, valence, Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.
|Unit-IV Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure:
Valence electrons, ionic bond, bond parameters, covalent bond. Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory. Resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, and concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbital’s and shapes of some simple molecules, Molecular orbital theory of mononuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), and hydrogen bond.
|Unit-V States of Matter: Gases and Liquids:
Three states of matter. Intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law. Charles’ law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law. Ideal behavior, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number. Ideal gas equation. Derivation from ideal behavior, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) derivation from ideal behavior, liquefaction of gasses, critical temperature Liquid State – Vapor pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
|Unit-VI: Solid State:
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, points defects, electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.
|Unit VII: Solutions:
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapor pressure, Ragouts Law, elevation of B.P., depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass. Vant Hoff factor.
Concepts of System, types of systems, surroundings. Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy heat capacity and specific heat measurement of cU and cH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium. Second law of thermodynamics, third law of thermodynamics (Brief introduction).
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH, Henderson Equation. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). Buffer solutions, solubility product, and common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
|Unit X: Chemical Kinetics:
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction: rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and’ half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation Energy, Arrhenius equation.
|Unit-XI Redox Reactions:
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, application of redox reaction.
|Unit XII: Electrochemistry:
Redox reactions; conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea) dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion. Relation between Gibbs Energy change and EMF of cell.
|Unit XIII: Surface Chemistry:
Absorption physiorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis; homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular/colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion-types of emulsions.
|Unit XIV: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements:
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminum, copper, zinc and Iron.
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide preparation, reactions, structure and use; hydrogen as a fuel.
|Unit-XVI S Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals):
Group 1 and Group 2 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds:
Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. CaO, CaCO3 and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
|Unit-XVII Some p-Block Elements, General introduction to p-Block
Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configurations, occurrence. Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron- physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acid, boron hydrides. Aluminum: reactions with acids and alkalies and uses.
Group 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configurations, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behavior of first element, Carbon – catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride silicones, silicates and zealots, their uses.
|Unit XVIII: p-Block Element:
Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen- preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acids, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous preparation and properties of phosphate, halides (PCl3,PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen; preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; Ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Group 17 elements: (General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens; preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
|Unit-XIX: d and f Block Elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals-metallic character, ionization, enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic properties, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7, and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and consequences.
Actenoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
|Unit-XX: Coordination Compounds:
Coordination compounds – introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding; Werner’s theory VBT, CFT, Isomerism (structure and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
|Unit-XXI Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles and Techniques:
General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electrometric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolysis fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbonations, carboanion; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
Classification of hydrocarbons
Alkanes Nomenclature isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including, free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene) geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties. Methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature: Benzene; resonance aromaticity: chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation: directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
|Unit-XXIII: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes:
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation.
Halearenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only)
Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichlromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
|Unit –XXIV: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers:
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses, with special reference to – methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
|Unit-XXV: Aldehydes, Ketones aml Carboxylic Acids:
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
|Unit-XXVI: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen:
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Dizonium Salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccaharides (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides
(sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance
Proteins – Elementary idea of amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Vitamins: Classification and functions. Harmones: Elementary idea (excluding structure) Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA.
Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers; natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, and rubber. Biodegradable and Non- Biodegradable Polymers.
Unit-XXIX: Chemistry in everyday life:
1. Chemicals in medicines analgesic, transquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
2. Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents. Elementary idea of antioxidents.
3. Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
|Unit-XXX Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution – air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer; greenhouse effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes: green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
|Unit I. Diversity in Living World:
What is living?; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domain of life; Taxonomy & Systematic; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy-Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
Five Kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperm and Angiosperm (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category) Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristics features and examples. Salient features and classification of Animals-non chordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples)
|Unit II Structural Organization in Animals and Plants:
Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, steam, leaf, inflorescence-cymose and racemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the practical syllabus).
Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
|Unit III Cell Structure and Function:
Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules- structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipid, nucleic acid; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
|Unit IV Plant Physiology:
Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Where does photosynthesis take place; How many pigments are involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
Respiration: Exchange of gases; Cellular respiration- glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; – Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation, Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
|Unit V- Human Physiology:
Digestion and Absorption: Alimentary canal and Digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, Digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats, Calorific value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats (for box item not to be evaluated); Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (Recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of Breathing and its regulation in humans – Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration – Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational Respiratory disorders.
Body fluids and Circulation: Composition of blood, Blood groups, Coagulation of blood; Composition of Lymph and its function; Human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, Cardiac output, ECG; Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system – Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, heart failure.
Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion – Ammonotelism, ureotelism; Uricotelism; Human excretory system – structure and function; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney-function – Renin- angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders – Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement-ciliary, flagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle – contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions. (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical Syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system – Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans-central nervous system, Peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Sensory Perception; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo- and hyperactivity and related disorders. (Common disorders eg. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exophthalmia goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).
Imp: Diseases related to all the human physiology systems to be taught in brief.
|Unit VI– Reproduction:
Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organism for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction-Asexual and sexual reproduction Modes –Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination- types, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
Reproduction health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control
– Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies-IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary ides for general awareness).
|Unit VII– Genetics and Evolution:
Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism- Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance – Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans- Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Molecular Basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation- Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, Comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic dirft; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
|Unit VIII– Biology and Human Welfare:
Health and Disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AID’s; Adolescence, drug and alcochol abuse.
Improvement in food production: plant breeding, tissues culture, sigle cell protein, Bifortification, Apiculture and animal husbandary.
Improvement in food production: plant breeding, tissues culture, sigle cell protein, Bifortification, Apiculture and animal husbandary.
|Unit IX– Biotechnology and its applications:
Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms- Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
|Unit X– Ecology and environment:
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions- mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decompositions; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrients cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
Biodiversity and its conversation: Concepts of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.